Muscle Pain

Posted by on March 14, 2017 . 0 Comments.

Muscle pain (myalgia) is a nagging, sometimes painful or spasmodic pain in the muscles : myalgia term consists of the Greek words and Algos Myos muscle pain. Muscle pain can be localized in a particular area of the body and be diffuse or radiate. In principle, the pain can occur at any of more than 600 in the body muscles.

Muscle pain (myalgia) occur most often in the shoulder and neck in the back. About 75 percent of adults in Europe suffer from back pain , one way or another has a muscular genesis. Muscles are classified into skeletal and smooth. Muscle include skeletal muscle, which provide human movement and connect bone structures. Quite often, the pain is not due to the skeletal muscles and smooth muscles (such as the problem in the smooth muscle of the heart can be a source of pain in the chest). Smooth muscles are located in the walls of hollow body organs such as stomach, urinary bladder and blood vessels and play an important role in normal organs. Cardiac muscle, which forms the heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body.

Muscles respond to commands from the brain and nervous system or other incentives, such as a reflex when the neurological examination conducted by a hammer. Muscles are reduced during stimulation and relax after contraction. The muscles may become a source of pain due to a variety of diseases and conditions, including infection, trauma, autoimmune diseases, neurological and muscular disorders, malignant tumors (cancer) and even after taking certain medications. Muscle pain also can involve ligaments, tendons and fascia, which England and the USA are the soft tissues that connect muscles, bones and organs.

A person may feel muscle pain in certain muscles of the body, such as the muscles of the back or feet or muscle pain can be diffuse in all muscles, such as the flu. In a patient with chest pain during an attack of angina pain is caused by problems in the myocardium. Menstrual pain is a pain due to smooth muscle of the uterus musculature. Temporary skeletal muscle pain often appear as a result of muscle tension because of the awkward movements or excessive loads. This type of pain often involves one or more muscles and, as a rule, and acute pain is intense. Refraining from activities that cause pain, rest, cold and topical anti-inflammatory drugs usually help to reduce the pain associated with excessive load on the muscles. Muscle pain can be caused by serious illnesses such as fibromyalgia, infections, or dermatomyositis.

Muscle pain may be a symptom of serious illness, such as muscle rupture or infectionTherefore, you should immediately seek medical help if the muscle pain is permanent or increases.

Not only is the pain in the muscles , but any pain is an important signal for the body. Various stimuli can cause pain, such as heating or cooling, pressure or stroke, as well as electrical stimulation and chemical substances. The so-called pain receptors are responsible for the transmission of these stimulating sensations. Pain receptors is the free nerve endings, which are located on the surface of the skin and deep - the muscles, tendons and ligaments, as well as in various organs. When nociceptors stimulation signal from them goes to the central nervous system, where the signal analysis, and there is a response protective reaction, which aims to prevent further damage.


Muscle pain may occur along with other symptoms, which can vary depending on the underlying disease. For example, muscle aches, which are caused by trauma, may be accompanied by bruising and swelling in the area of ​​injury. Additional symptoms that may be accompanied by muscle pain include:

  • Depression
  • Diarrhea
  • The symptoms of acute respiratory illness (fever, chills, sore throat, fatigue, headache, cough)
  • Impaired concentration
  • Loss of appetite
  • Muscle cramps
  • Numbness, tingling, or burning (called paresthesia)
  • Problems when walking
  • sleep disturbances
  • Swelling at the site of injury
  • Sudden weight loss
  • vomiting

Serious symptoms that may indicate a life-threatening condition

In some cases, muscle pain can occur in association with other symptoms that might indicate a serious or life-threatening condition, such as heart attack (infarction) or meningitis. An urgent need to consult a doctor if there are any of these symptoms:

  • Changes in consciousness or attention, such as loss of consciousness or sudden memory impairment
  • Changes in mental state, such as perception of the infringement
  • Chest pain radiating to the arm, shoulder, neck, or jaw
  • Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath
  • Inability to move anywhere in the body
  • Violation (loss) of
  • Lack of urine
  • Progressive weakness and numbness
  • seizure
  • Stiff muscles with a high temperature

Cause of pain


Skeletal muscle pain, often caused by direct trauma or injury as a result of muscle strain or muscle strainMuscle tension occurs when there is damage to some muscular fibers, while at break muscle rupture occurs a large number of muscle fibers. The gap (torn) tendon may also cause pain in the muscles. Muscles and tendons have the ability to regenerate, but a strong break muscle or tendon need to have operational integrity of the restoration of damaged structures. Muscle pain may be caused by spasms that occur as a result of overload or abnormal nerve impulses, which leads to excessive muscle contraction. In some cases, muscle pain may be a symptom of severe or life-threatening conditions such as heart attack, meningitis or cancer.

Traumatic causes of pain in the muscles

Muscle pain may be associated with any injury, including:

Neuromuscular diseases and conditions

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease) - a serious neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness and leads to disability
  • brain injury or spinal cord
  • Dermatomyositis (condition characterized by inflammation of the muscles and skin rash)
  • Lyme disease (inflammatory bacterial disease transmitted by ticks)
  • Multiple sclerosis (disease that affects the brain and spinal cord and causes weakness, impaired coordination, balance and other problems)
  • The destruction of the muscles (rhabdomyolysis)
  • Muscle infection such as an abscess
  • Parkinson's disease (disease of the brain, leading to a deterioration of movement and poor coordination)
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica (disease characterized by muscle pain and stiffness)
  • Polymyositis (inflammation and muscle weakness)
  • Stroke

Other possible causes of muscle pain

Muscle pain can be caused by a variety of other diseases and conditions, including:

  • Cancer
  • Depression
  • fibromyalgia
  • Angina pectoris or myocardial infarction
  • Flu or other respiratory diseases
  • kidney failure
  • Electrolytic disorders (disorders potassium or calcium in the blood).
  • Pregnancy
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Deficiency of vitamin B12 or vitamin D

Medications and substances that can cause muscle pain include:

  • ACE inhibitors (used to lower blood pressure)
  • Cocaine
  • The statins (drugs to lower cholesterol)

Questions that help identify the cause of pain in the muscles, include:

  • Are there any other symptoms, such as sore throat or fever?
  • Do you feel pain in one particular area or in the entire body?
  • How long is this state?
  • In some parts of the body are localized pain?
  • What reduces pain and increases the pain?
  • What medications are being taken, or have recently taken

Potential complications of muscle pain

Complications associated with muscle pain depend on the underlying disease or condition. For example, muscular pain associated with fibromyalgia or degenerative disease, may reduce locomotor activity and related complications. Many skeletal muscle pain, however, respond well to treatment. However, if muscle pain lasting and is associated with a systemic disease, it can cause the following complications including such as:

  • Chronic pain
  • Immobility and related complications (such as pressure sores and blood clots)
  • Persistent pain resistant to treatment
  • Amyotrophy
  • contracture of muscle
  • Persistent muscle or nerve damage (usually due to nerve compression), including paralysis.
  • Reduced quality of life


Diagnosis muscular pain (myalgia), primarily based on the history of the disease and symptoms. Most muscle pain associated with muscle tension (for example, due to incorrect posture or sedentary lifestyle) or injuries (eg, sprains, bruises and muscle soreness in sports in England and the USA). Instrumental methods of research, such as ultrasound or X-ray, CT, MRI, help to confirm or to differentiate the cause of pain in the muscles .

Medical history (history).

The doctor will be interested in the type of pain, localized pain and intensity of muscle pain. This information can be the key to determine the causes of pain in the legs. Very important information about the presence of muscle injury, the presence of bruises, the factors that lead to increased or decreased muscle aches or pains are persistent in nature, such as disc herniation, while the appearance of pain (day or night).

Inspection. Medical examination to determine the presence of painful areas, the presence of areas of skin color changes, the range of motion in the muscles or joints, muscle strength the presence of local pain in the tendons, or the definition of trigger points (eg, fibromyalgia). Furthermore, the importance of reflex activity, and other neurological sensitivity tests that can detect the presence of neurological disorders. Time of occurrence of pain in the muscles is also important, since, for example in osteoporosis, or ankylosing spondylitis. Abuse of alcohol or drugs may be a possible cause of pain in the muscles, and information about it is important to determine the causes of pain in the muscles. Some medications may also have the side effect of pain in the muscles.

Laboratory testing methods.

Blood tests can determine the presence of inflammation or infection, autoimmune processes; biochemical tests allow us to determine abnormalities in the internal organs (eg, liver or kidney).

Ultrasonography (ultrasound). This method of study allows you to visualize the presence of muscle inflammation (myositis) ruptures of muscles and tendons.

Such research methods like CT or MRI is necessary to visualize the problems in the deep muscles, where ultrasound study little information, or if necessary, visualization of neurological conditions or traumatic injuries. Electrophysiological research methods (EMG or electroneuromyographic) allow us to determine the presence of inflammatory or degenerative diseases of the muscles or the nerves conduction disturbances due to compression of the nerve roots or other neurological diseases.

Muscle biopsy is usually used as the final step for the diagnosis of muscle diseases, and only if there are clear indications of such diseases.



Treatment of muscle pain depends on the causes of this symptom. Therefore, the most important factor in determining the tactics of treatment is an accurate diagnosis. For example, if the muscle pains due to the reception of certain drugs, in such cases, it is enough to stop these medications or to replace them with other medicines. Medical treatment for muscle pain can include medications like NSAIDs or analgesics, and even opiates.

Acute pain in the muscles

In acute muscle pain arising from injury, you need to ensure peace and unloading, in some cases, immobilization. Furthermore, a good effect in these cases gives local cooling with ice, wrapped in a towel in order to reduce edema inflammation pain. Furthermore, it is necessary to stop the load, leading to muscular pain. For the treatment of muscle injuries it requires a lot of time, since the early restoration of normal loads can lead to chronic pain and lead to excessive scarring of muscle tissue, and in severe cases, to the development of myositis ossificans.

Chronic muscle pain

The treatment of chronic pain may involve the use of thermal treatments and other treatments such as:

  • Acupuncture and acupressure
  • Electrotherapy (treatment by electricity)
  • electromyostimulation
  • Physiotherapy
  • LFK
  • manual therapy

Systematic exercise (physical therapy) is particularly relevant when the cause of chronic pain are degenerative diseases of the spine, such as low back pain, spondylosis, herniated disc.

Surgical treatments are used in severe traumatic injuries of the muscles or in the presence of nerve root compression.

Preventing muscle pain is to the following rules: maintaining a healthy lifestyle, adequate exercise, balanced nutrition, proper workplace ergonomics, with the exception of alcohol abuse, smoking.

Last update: March 14, 2017


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